beta1-adrenergic receptor blocker.
beta2-adrenergic receptor blocker.
alpha2-adrenergic receptor blocker.
alpha1-adrenergic receptor blocker.
concentration of local anesthetic
the number of cartridges of local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor administered.
Causes vasoconstriction and decreased blood flow in injection area
Prevents the efflux of sodium out of the neuron
Prevents the influx of sodium into the neuron by blocking neuronal channels
Causes vasodilation and increased blood flow in iniection area
80% decrease in the time for normal sensation to return
25% decrease in the time for normal sensation to return
10% decrease in the time for normal sensation to return
50% decrease in the time for normal sensation to return
2 and 3
1 and 3
Articaine (Septocaine, Zorcaine)
depression of CNS
bone marrow depression
Nitrous oxide has no contraindications
1 - 8
All of the above
Inhalation general anesthesia
Inrtavenous general anesthesia
is considcrcd a dissociative anesthetic
a short-acting hypnotic agent; vasodilator
is a carboxylated imidazole derivative which acts similar to the ultrashortacting barbituratcs.